To make steel, you need a variety of materials and products. These include iron ore, coke (made from coal), sulfur, limestone, and water. The iron ore is smelted down into pig iron, which needs to be heated until it reaches about 1,000 degrees Celsius to start making steel. The pig iron is turned into various types of steel by adding different elements like carbon or silicon.
The main ingredients in steel are carbon, alloying elements, and water. Carbon is the most abundant element in steel and provides strength, hardness, and durability. The alloying elements add various metals' characteristics, such as strength, toughness, flexibility, etc. Water makes it pliable enough to be worked with and hardens when heated.
Steel is made by combining ore with heat and pressure to form metal. The most common type of steel is hot rolled, which involves rolling the steel at a high temperature to produce an even thickness. Next, the steel is cold and worked into various shapes and sizes using different techniques like stamping, forging, or machining.
Steel is often used in construction because it's strong and durable. On the other hand, iron is not as strong as steel and can eventually become brittle. Additionally, iron tends to rust, which can cause significant problems with structural integrity. Steel also has a low thermal expansion coefficient, which means that it doesn't change its shape significantly when subjected to heat or cold.